In January 2020, the Partnership for Countering Influence Operations began a daily email compilation of media reporting and publications about influence operations from universities, researchers, think tanks, governments, social media companies, and civil society organizations.

We have now arranged this material into a public, searchable format to help experts and others better understand the evolving discourse about influence operations. The database is not an exhaustive collection of every publication or article published on influence operations, but rather an illustrative sample of stories and research output that we judged to be notable at the time. The archive includes publications from a wide range of sources to convey the breadth of public discussion; inclusion is not necessarily an endorsement of quality.

Victoria Smith
Victoria Smith is a nonresident senior research analyst at the Partnership for Countering Influence Operations at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
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To compile this data, we searched Media Cloud and LexisNexis for various terms used to describe influence operations. In addition, we used TweetDeck to identify publications being promoted by those active in the counter–influence operations community.1 We manually filtered search results to exclude irrelevant results. Where there was a large volume of reporting about the same incident, we selected articles that reflected the range of discussion.

Unsurprisingly, health-related disinformation, particularly related to the coronavirus, has been a dominant storyline since the early spring of 2020. As the year progressed, disinformation related to the U.S. presidential election became another focal point. There were also many stories relating to the evolving response of social media companies to the challenges of influence operations, as well as many research publications exposing specific influence operations and tactics around the world.

This archive will be updated once a month.

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Notes 

1 For this portion of our research, we followed Twitter accounts associated with the counter-influence operations initiatives identified in previous PCIO research. https://carnegieendowment.org/2020/12/14/mapping-worldwide-initiatives-to-counter-influence-operations-pub-83435