Cyberspace has long been touted as a revolutionary domain of warfare that will disrupt balances of power and force a rethink of military strategy. Yet while dozens of states now have cyber commands, only a few nations carry out the most significant operations. And even these top players strain to turn cyber capabilities into battlefield victories, as Russia has found in Ukraine. Has a fascination with cyber strategy obscured the stubborn fact of cyber incapacity?

Join us for a timely conversation with Max Smeets on his new book, No Shortcuts: Why States Struggle to Develop a Military Cyber-Force, moderated by Carnegie senior fellow Jon Bateman.