By excluding the Muslims from the defense of the nation, the state has undermined the project of a multicultural India enshrined in the Constitution and prepared the ground for the saffronisation of the public sphere.
Joseph Bahout is a nonresident scholar in Carnegie’s Middle East Program. His research focuses on political developments in Lebanon and Syria, regional spillover from the Syrian crisis, and identity politics across the region.
Kim Ghattas is a senior visiting fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where she is focused on writing a book about the impact of the rivalry between Iran and Saudi Arabia on the wider region since 1979.
Program ManagerProgram on Civil-Military Relations in Arab StatesCarnegie Middle East Center
Romy Nasr is the program manager on the Civil-Military Relations in Arab States (CMRAS) program at the Carnegie Middle East Center, where her work focuses on defense affairs and security issues related to North Africa and the Levant.
Sarah Yerkes is a fellow in Carnegie’s Middle East Program, where her research focuses on Tunisia’s political, economic, and security developments as well as state-society relations in the Middle East and North Africa.
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